China Thread

Gask

Lord Nagafen Raider
1,345
18d 5h 29m
Reactions
2,182 536 0 0
#1
China Assigns Every Citizen A ‘Social Credit Score’ To Identify Who Is And Isn’t Trustworthy

Country Determines Your Standing Through Use Of Surveillance Video, Plans To Have 600 Million Cameras By 2020

"China is rolling out a high-tech plan to give all of its 1.4 billion citizens a personal score, based on how they behave. But there are consequences if a score gets too low, and for some that’s cause for concern, CBS2’s Ben Tracy reported Tuesday. When Liu Hu recently tried to book a flight, he was told he was banned from flying because he was on the list of untrustworthy people. Liu is a journalist who was ordered by a court to apologize for a series of tweets he wrote and was then told his apology was insincere."

“I can’t buy property. My child can’t go to a private school,” he said. “You feel you’re being controlled by the list all the time.”

And the list is now getting longer as every Chinese citizen is being assigned a social credit score — a fluctuating rating based on a range of behaviors."

"Li is the CEO of Sensetime, one of China’s most successful artificial intelligence companies. It has created smart cameras for the government that can help catch criminals, but also track average citizens."

“We can tell whether it is an adult, a child, male or female,” Li said.

"Ken Dewoskin has studied China’s economic and political culture for more than three decades. He says how the new scoring system truly works is kept secret and could be easily abused by the government."

Tracy: “How far into people’s daily mundane activities does this go?”

Dewoskin: “Well, I think that the government and the people running the plan would like it to go as deeply as possible to determine how to allocate benefits and also how to impact and shape their behavior.”

"The fear, of course, it that the government may use this social credit scoring system to punish people that it deems not sufficiently loyal to the communist party, Tracy reported. And trying to clear your name or fight your score is nearly impossible, because there’s no due process."
-

“Now I will tell you the answer to my question. It is this. The Party seeks power entirely for its own sake. We are not interested in the good of others; we are interested solely in power, pure power. What pure power means you will understand presently. We are different from the oligarchies of the past in that we know what we are doing. All the others, even those who resembled ourselves, were cowards and hypocrites. The German Nazis and the Russian Communists came very close to us in their methods, but they never had the courage to recognize their own motives. They pretended, perhaps they even believed, that they had seized power unwillingly and for a limited time, and that just around the corner there lay a paradise where human beings would be free and equal. We are not like that. We know that no one ever seizes power with the intention of relinquishing it. Power is not a means; it is an end. One does not establish a dictatorship in order to safeguard a revolution; one makes the revolution in order to establish the dictatorship. The object of persecution is persecution. The object of torture is torture. The object of power is power. Now you begin to understand me.”
― George Orwell, 1984
 
Last edited:

Tripamang

<Donors Crew>
910
15d 13h 3m
Reactions
821 40 0 0
#2
The Communist Party of China is totally fucked from my perspective, it's going to be an interesting decade where all those poor investments they're making are going to pop. When the eventual economic collapse hits Chinese citizens they're going to throw the communist's out overnight. Their whole power base is centered around making their citizens rich, and when the top down socialist portions of their economy are what cause it to fail it'll be nobody's fault but the party's. What's going to be funny is that I'm sure there are a large number of Chinese citizens who are fully aware how fucked things are going to be, and are completely silenced by the government thus preventing them from doing anything about it. What's great is that this whole thing could of been avoided or at least the coming correction minimized if it could be openly talked about, making a text book argument for free speech and democracy.

If China can go democratic I have nothing but hope for the future, and I think it has a serious chance of going that direction.
 

Gask

Lord Nagafen Raider
1,345
18d 5h 29m
Reactions
2,182 536 0 0
#3
Chinese agents are undermining Australia's sovereignty, Clive Hamilton's controversial new book claims

Thousands of agents of the Chinese state have integrated themselves into Australian public life — from the high spheres of politics, academia and business all the way down to suburban churches and local writers' groups — according to a controversial book to be published on Monday.

The book, Silent Invasion: How China Is Turning Australia into a Puppet State, is written by Clive Hamilton, professor of public ethics at Charles Sturt University.

In it, he alleges that a systematic Chinese government campaign of espionage and influence peddling is leading to "the erosion of Australian sovereignty".

That erosion is caused, in part, by a recent wave of Chinese migration to Australia including "billionaires with shady histories and tight links to the [Chinese Communist] party, media owners creating Beijing mouthpieces, 'patriotic' students brainwashed from birth, and professionals marshalled into pro-Beijing associations set up by the Chinese embassy," Professor Hamilton writes.

Those concerns were given some credence by the Government late last year, when Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull announced he planned to enact new foreign interference laws to counter such espionage.

Mr Turnbull used strong language at the time, paraphrasing a famous Chinese communist slogan to say Australia would "stand up" to foreign governments meddling in Australian affairs.

The book will cause particular angst among Australia's political class.

It lists more than 40 former and sitting Australian politicians who Professor Hamilton says are doing the work of China's totalitarian Government, if sometimes unwittingly. Many are household names.

"Let's call the Australia-China Research Institute for what it is," Professor Hamilton writes.

"A Beijing-backed propaganda outfit disguised as a legitimate research institute, whose ultimate objective is to advance the CCP's [Chinese Communist Party's] influence in Australian policy and political circles, an organisation hosted by a university whose commitment to academic freedom and proper practice is clouded by money hunger, and directed by an ex-politician suffering from relevance deprivation syndrome who cannot see what a valuable asset he has become for Beijing."

The book also details a list of Chinese-Australian academics whom Professor Hamilton says are allowing the transfer of potentially national security-significant research — in sensitive areas such as space, artificial intelligence and computer engineering — from Australian universities to the Chinese military.
He refers to classified Chinese Government reports which instruct Chinese officials to infiltrate overseas churches that have Chinese congregations. "They instruct cadres to monitor, infiltrate and 'sinify' overseas Chinese churches by actively promoting the CCP's concepts of Chineseness and 'spiritual love'."

In 2014, he notes, the website of the Canberra Chinese Methodist Church included a statement which linked the rise of the CCP to God's will: "The awe-inspiring righteousness of Xi Jinping, the President of the People's Republic of China, and the rise of a great nation that is modern China are part of God's plan, predestination and blessing."

Many Chinese church pastors believe their congregations have been penetrated by Chinese Government cadres, Professor Hamilton writes.

"One pastor told me: 'There are lots of communists in our church community.' He guessed that around a quarter or a third are or have been communists. Some join the church for the companionship, some for the social contacts; others are the [Chinese Government's] assets."

Silent Invasion is so controversial it almost didn't make it to publication. It was due to be released late last year by Allen & Unwin, but the publisher baulked over concerns it would be targeted by Beijing and its proxies in Australia. Melbourne University Press also turned down the book.

That led Professor Hamilton — the author of half-a-dozen books about climate change, politics and economics — to hit out at what he described as an attempt by the CCP to muzzle public debate in Australia.

"[This is a] landmark win for the Chinese Communist Party's campaign to suppress critical voices," Professor Hamilton wrote to Allen & Unwin chief executive Robert Gorman at the time.

The book was recently acquired by Hardie Grant, run by Sandy Grant, who in the 1980s published the controversial memoir of former British intelligence officer Peter Wright. The publication occurred against the wishes of the British government, which was trying to censor the book.

Professor Hamilton may also have reason to be concerned about the impact of authoring the book. This week New Zealand Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern ordered intelligence officers to investigate break-ins at the home and office of prominent NZ China academic Anne-Marie Brady.

Professor Brady has spent her career researching China's global influence and her 2017 paper, Magic Weapons, caused global waves when it revealed how deeply China had penetrated NZ's Government.
 

Gask

Lord Nagafen Raider
1,345
18d 5h 29m
Reactions
2,182 536 0 0
#5
Surreal photos of China's failed 'city of the future'
Ordos, China, once flush with cash, has been called the world's largest ghost town. In the early 2000s, a coal-mining boom led the local government to throw money at urban development in the hopes of creating a new epicenter of culture, economy, and politics. Ordos New Town, also known as Kangbashi, would hold 1 million people and be known for its massive abstract architecture projects, residential towers, and state-of-the-art sports venues. (Developers later scaled back the concept city to accommodate 300,000 people.)

But high property taxes and poor construction deterred people from settling in Ordos. In 2016, some 100,000 people lived and worked there — leaving the city two-thirds empty. "The whole city feels like a post-apocalyptic space station straight out of a science fiction movie," says the photographer Raphael Olivier, who captured the city in a series titled "Ordos — A Failed Utopia." Olivier shared some of his spectacular images with us. You can check out more on his website.

Located in the remote province of Inner Mongolia, Ordos sits on one-sixth of China's coal reserves — making it an attractive center for development. In the late '90s and early 2000s, private mining companies got the rights to dig into those deposits. The influx of new business generated lots of tax revenue.

"The local government decided to build this overly ambitious city from scratch," Olivier told Business Insider. In 2005, it began investing hundreds of millions of dollars in real estate and infrastructure. But by 2010, an abundance of housing in a nonexistent market led the bubble to burst. High property taxes turned off families from moving to Ordos, according to Olivier.

Plus, Ordos New Town rose up just a few miles from the "old city" of Ordos, a thriving provincial town. "People just didn't see the point of moving," Olivier said. "In the end, only government officials and migrant construction workers effectively settled in," Olivier said, "leaving the vast majority of the city completely empty." Though the city is only about one-third full, 80% to 90% of unoccupied apartments have owners, who hold on to them as long-term investments, Forbes reported in 2016.

Ordos remains a shell of a futuristic city but tourists and journalists have flocked there to document its mesmerizing architecture — and eeriness.
Some photograph's of the city:
basketball.jpg

568ab1c6dd0895d4338b46a2-1334-890.jpg

568ab1c6dd0895d4338b469b-1334-890.jpg

568ab1c6dd0895d4338b46a1-1334-890.jpg

568ab1c6dd0895d4338b469e-1334-890.jpg
56a795a9dd0895cd148b45ca-1334-890.jpg
568ab1c6dd0895d4338b46a7-1334-890.jpg
568ab1c6dd0895d4338b46a0-1334-890.jpg
Here's a great motorcycle Vlog that covers the topic of Ordos, the Chinese construction boom/economy and gives a short tour of another ghost town. It's very interesting, especially the last 5 minutes.
 

khorum

Get Raped
<Donors Crew>
17,755
66d 5h 35m
Reactions
48,964 2,054 0 0
#6
It's way waaaaaay worse than it looks. Those cities were built with STATE BANK FUNDING. And not only did the PCGC banks fund them with pensions and shit, PRC regs require INSURANCE carriers to retain deposits in state banks too!

Worst is that the Chinese, being asian, have ridiculously high rates of savings---a concept so alien that it would boggle the mind of an average American consumer. In fact Chinese savings rates are higher than the Japanese, who are legendary at not spending their money.

But all those savings are being spent generating bullshit make-work jobs, so they have tons of those ghost cities. Recently the Chinese have cracked down on people reporting on how desolate those cities have been.
 

Olebass

I'm a lead farmer.
<Donors Crew>
14,188
29d 4h 10m
Reactions
38,618 1,169 0 0
#7
I saw a video the other day of a woman almost being eaten by a elevator in China only to die later on in the day to a escalator. Avoid anything with a E in China.
 

Vepil

Gamja
<Donor All-Stars>
2,394
Reactions
8,945 539 0 0
#8
I saw a video the other day of a woman almost being eaten by a elevator in China only to die later on in the day to a escalator. Avoid anything to do with China.
Let me fix that for ya.
 

Gask

Lord Nagafen Raider
1,345
18d 5h 29m
Reactions
2,182 536 0 0
#9
Former CIA Officer Charged With Spying For China
Jerry Chun Shing Lee, 53, a naturalized U.S. citizen, had a top-secret clearance and worked as a field agent for the Central Intelligence Agency from 1994 until 2007. He was living in Hong Kong at the time of his arrest, and had apparently been the target of an FBI investigation since 2012, when agents searching a Honolulu hotel room discovered handwritten notes on "asset meeting, operational meeting locations, operational phone numbers, true names of assets, and covert facilities" pertaining to China, according to a court affidavit.

It is not known why the FBI waiting so long after uncovering the notebooks to arrest Lee; however, it is also not clear how frequently he traveled to the U.S., where his eventual arrest took place. The charges on Tuesday also included two counts of unlawfully retaining documents related to U.S. national defense. He faces a maximum of life in prison. "The allegations in this case are troubling," said Tracy Doherty-McCormick, acting U.S. attorney for the Eastern District of Virginia. "Conspiring with foreign agents poses a real and serious threat toward our national security."

The New York Times has written that the information in Lee's notebooks is thought to have been used by Beijing to dismantle U.S. spy operations and identify informants inside China. Two year before the FBI searched his hotel room, the CIA had begun "losing its informants in China" to the tune, eventually of more than a dozen killed or imprisoned. "Some intelligence officials believed that a mole inside the C.I.A. was exposing its roster of informants. Others thought that the Chinese government had hacked the C.I.A.'s covert communications used to talk to foreign sources of information," according to the Times.

"The indictment alleges that three years after Lee left the CIA in 2007, two Chinese intelligence officers approached him and offered to pay him for information, including documents on U.S. defense, until at least 2011. "The Chinese intelligence officers allegedly provided Lee with email addresses so they could communicate covertly. The indictment alleges that Lee made 'numerous unexplained cash deposits, and repeatedly lied to the U.S. government during voluntary interviews when asked about travel to China and his actions overseas.' "
China Rapidly Building Advanced Arms
China is rapidly building space weapons and other advanced arms infused with artificial intelligence capabilities as part of Beijing's bid for military dominance, according to a congressionally sponsored study. Anti-satellite missiles and orbiting killer satellites, swarms of attack drones, hypersonic missiles, maneuvering warheads, lasers, and high-speed rail guns are key systems China is fielding in the coming years in a bid to leap ahead of the U.S. military supremacy.

"All of China’s advanced weapons systems are moving forward at ‘full speed' and are all seen as ‘priorities given [China’s] overarching emphasis on finding a vulnerability in the U.S. armor,'" the report warns, quoting a 2013 Chinese military strategy. The advanced weapons are part of a shift in Beijing's military focus from deploying high-technology "informatized" weapons to "intelligentized" arms—revolutionary capabilities boosted by artificial intelligence and machine learning, the report said.

The study examined five advanced arms being developed by China: space weapons, unmanned vehicles, maneuverable missile warheads, directed energy weapons, and electromagnetic railguns. "Past history and existing potential point fairly clearly to the likelihood that these systems will become a feature of the strategic landscape in a decade. Or less," states the report from the U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission.

The report was produced by five analysts for the defense contractor Jane's IHS Markit and made public Thursday. Publication of the congressional report comes as the Trump administration has undertaken a strategic shift that recognizes China as one of the major nation state threats facing the United States. The advanced weapons systems will destabilize the Asia-Pacific region by upsetting alliances as China seeks to control the area and will increase the danger of regional conflicts.

The report also concludes the United States is falling behind China in the development of advanced weapons and will have to hurry to avoid being overtaken. "The United States has a small window, only a decade at most, to develop new capabilities and concepts for countering China’s advanced weapons programs,". According to the report, China's space warfare efforts are currently the highest priority. China has demonstrated all components of its weaponry. They include direct ascent anti-satellite missiles, lasers, and high-powered microwave guns and other beam weapons, weaponized orbiting satellites, and cyber anti-satellite capabilities.

The strategic competition between China and the United States, from Beijing's view, is designed to counter what China perceives as regional efforts to "contain" Chinese hegemony, the report said. "China views its role as capitalizing on the opportunities presented by globalization and the informatization of society to propel itself forward economically, socially, and technologically," the report said. A key capability the Chinese military is pursuing is artificial intelligence—the fusing of masses of data with high-speed computing to produce weapons capable of reacting very quickly without human intervention.

The study urges the United States to fortify a "quadrilateral" alliance in Asia to counter China, with key allies Japan, Australia, and India. "The appropriate response must gather these overlapping interests and bundle them to American and allied advantage, notably via deliberate plans to understand and counter China’s destabilizing moves," the report said. "China does not stand ten feet tall. It remains vulnerable to internal stresses and discord. Adversaries can play on China’s anxieties and phobias." Utilizing limitation agreements and playing on Russian fears of China also should be exploited by the United States.

The report makes several references to an authoritative 2013 Chinese military report called "The Science of Military Strategy." The strategy says the threat of a large-scale ground invasion is minimal but that the major threat will be an attack from the Pacific. "The most severe war threat is a large-scale strategic sudden attack launched by a strong adversary, which aims at destroying our war potential to force us to surrender," the strategy says. "The most probable war threat is a limited military conflict from the sea. The war we need to prepare for, particularly given the background of nuclear deterrence, is a large-scale and highly intensive local war from the sea."

China is stepping up efforts to steal or buy foreign technologies related to artificial intelligence and big data analytics. Other targets include the Internet of Things, virtual reality and augmented reality, smart sensors, 3D and 4D printing, robotics and unmanned systems, smart materials, quantum computing and encryption, semiconductors and energy capture, and storage technologies.
 

Kaige

ReRefugee
<WoW Guild Officer>
3,107
62d 9h 59m
Reactions
3,119 154 0 0
#10
LiveLeak is full of scary China videos.
 

Aldarion

Trakanon Raider
1,458
7d 18h 52m
Reactions
2,679 168 0 0
#11
If China can go democratic I have nothing but hope for the future, and I think it has a serious chance of going that direction.
While I am all for spreading Democracy throughout the world (along with proper toilets and TP), I don't share your optimism.

Source: I've worked closely with a few Chinese people (not immigrants, Chinese people here temporarily on work visas). Just like Democracy doesnt produce Western society when applied in Arab cultures, I dont think it will in China either. They will vote overwhelmingly for shit we'd go to war if someone suggested.

When the chinese melamine in baby formula scandal was breaking, my coworker's response was "yeah, there are some really clever people in China". Not "how horrible, poisoning babies for profit". Just "yeah, clever".

I predict a majority of Chinese would vote in favor of the horrific 1CP and this horrific new social media meets big brother. Democracy aint gonna turn them into people who value individual liberty.
 

Titan_Atlas

<Moderation Tools>
6,119
14d 14m
Reactions
14,598 832 0 0
#12
The Communist Party of China is totally fucked from my perspective, it's going to be an interesting decade where all those poor investments they're making are going to pop. When the eventual economic collapse hits Chinese citizens they're going to throw the communist's out overnight. Their whole power base is centered around making their citizens rich, and when the top down socialist portions of their economy are what cause it to fail it'll be nobody's fault but the party's. What's going to be funny is that I'm sure there are a large number of Chinese citizens who are fully aware how fucked things are going to be, and are completely silenced by the government thus preventing them from doing anything about it. What's great is that this whole thing could of been avoided or at least the coming correction minimized if it could be openly talked about, making a text book argument for free speech and democracy.

If China can go democratic I have nothing but hope for the future, and I think it has a serious chance of going that direction.
The Chinese power structure will be just fine and continue until the end. The crash of the economy will hurt but it will just consolidate power to those with resources and technology. Same as it will in the West when our crash eventually comes. Democracy is dead, same as Communism just a slower death. Technology will bring humanity to a cataclysm event that wipes out 95% of the planet.
 

Lanx

Aten Ha Ra Slayer
17,191
45d 1h 32m
Reactions
27,608 5,488 0 0
#13
While I am all for spreading Democracy throughout the world (along with proper toilets and TP), I don't share your optimism.

Source: I've worked closely with a few Chinese people (not immigrants, Chinese people here temporarily on work visas). Just like Democracy doesnt produce Western society when applied in Arab cultures, I dont think it will in China either. They will vote overwhelmingly for shit we'd go to war if someone suggested.

When the chinese melamine in baby formula scandal was breaking, my coworker's response was "yeah, there are some really clever people in China". Not "how horrible, poisoning babies for profit". Just "yeah, clever".

I predict a majority of Chinese would vote in favor of the horrific 1CP and this horrific new social media meets big brother. Democracy aint gonna turn them into people who value individual liberty.
See most ppl don't know that theres a CLEAR distinct difference between

Chinese ppl and Hong Kongers

Chinese ppl are from the mainland, they are just pieces of shit, Hong Kongers, are from Hong Kong and ran the fuck away before integration. Actually Hong Kongers are more in line w/ Taiwainese if thats an easier distinction.

Or

Chinese ppl are rednecks, Taiwanese/HongKongers are white people

You can see this in NY, Chinatown is still majority HongKongers and have American values, 8th Ave in Bklyn as well.

While Ave U in Bklyn is mostly Fukanese or they're taking over, these are garbage chinese, pretty much rednecks.

And Flushing Queens (the asian melting pot of Korean/VietCong/both Chinese) is on a slow stalemate of losing to a super influx of mainlanders
 

khorum

Get Raped
<Donors Crew>
17,755
66d 5h 35m
Reactions
48,964 2,054 0 0
#14
See most ppl don't know that theres a CLEAR distinct difference between

Chinese ppl and Hong Kongers

Chinese ppl are from the mainland, they are just pieces of shit, Hong Kongers, are from Hong Kong and ran the fuck away before integration. Actually Hong Kongers are more in line w/ Taiwainese if thats an easier distinction.

Or

Chinese ppl are rednecks, Taiwanese/HongKongers are white people

You can see this in NY, Chinatown is still majority HongKongers and have American values, 8th Ave in Bklyn as well.

While Ave U in Bklyn is mostly Fukanese or they're taking over, these are garbage chinese, pretty much rednecks.

And Flushing Queens (the asian melting pot of Korean/VietCong/both Chinese) is on a slow stalemate of losing to a super influx of mainlanders
which of them are the ones that really hate black ppl?
 

DirkDonkeyroot

Lord Nagafen Raider
296
30d 18h 21m
Reactions
444 38 0 0
#16
which of them are the ones that really hate black ppl?
Most of them.

Living in Hong Kong, I agree with Lanx there is a huge difference between HK people and mainlanders. Unfortunately the mainland savages are having their farm lands taken from them and given money by the government, which they use to go buy a tiny apparently here for 2x the actual value and drive everyone's real estate prices up.

A lot of mainland people are good people but individuality or creativity isn't their strong suit. But then you've got the farmers that have never been more than 10km from their villages being given millions of RMB by their government that come to Hong Kong and think it's perfectly ok to shit on a piece of paper in the middle of our rail system.

You guys have any questions about Hong Kong feel free to ask and I'll answer best as my stupid white ass can.
 

Lanx

Aten Ha Ra Slayer
17,191
45d 1h 32m
Reactions
27,608 5,488 0 0
#18
What is the likelihood of a war over Taiwan?
The one who will start the war will be Trump, he's already putting China on blast w/ sand dindu sanctions, north Faulty Armor sanctions, and actually acknowledge that fucking Taiwain exists.

He fucking makes China lose face at every turn and has his demon spawn jew grand kid serenade the Leader in Mandarin, he's been planning this shit forever.

It'll be his Trumps second term when he really slaps China in the face, and i can't wait, fuck em
 

Tripamang

<Donors Crew>
910
15d 13h 3m
Reactions
821 40 0 0
#19
While I am all for spreading Democracy throughout the world (along with proper toilets and TP), I don't share your optimism.

Source: I've worked closely with a few Chinese people (not immigrants, Chinese people here temporarily on work visas). Just like Democracy doesnt produce Western society when applied in Arab cultures, I dont think it will in China either. They will vote overwhelmingly for shit we'd go to war if someone suggested.

When the chinese melamine in baby formula scandal was breaking, my coworker's response was "yeah, there are some really clever people in China". Not "how horrible, poisoning babies for profit". Just "yeah, clever".

I predict a majority of Chinese would vote in favor of the horrific 1CP and this horrific new social media meets big brother. Democracy aint gonna turn them into people who value individual liberty.
I'm not sure how stuff like the baby formula gets reported in China, but I can't imagine the speech around it is as free as it is in the west. Maybe I'm being overly optimistic but I just feel like China is a place in the thick of self imposed ignorance via government censorship. That if they were given the facts and platforms to talk about it they might have different opinions. For example I find it kind of scary how normalized that guy was to the idea of companies poisoning people. Thats a statement from someone dealing with a nihilistic level of corruption.

I just don't think they can ask for something better without consequences. But I do think there are enough people in China who respect the success of the West that when China fails it will adopt whatever system will prevent the failure from happening again and democracy+freedom of speech are the best systems we have so far.
 

khorum

Get Raped
<Donors Crew>
17,755
66d 5h 35m
Reactions
48,964 2,054 0 0
#20
i mean, to be fair, they execute those people lol.

The ching-chongs will execute anyone who defrauds/embezzles/launders anything in excess of $463,000. Anything less than that and theyll prolly just imprison you for a few years and give you -9000 negs on their national forum metagame system.

unless you defraud a charity or poison babies, in that case you get the firing squad for HALF that much. Exactly half as much. It's an actual law.
 
Last edited: